Another ERISA stock-drop plaintiff meets icy reception by the courts

Much like our frigid weather, the courts continue their chilly reception of ERISA stock-drop claims.   Just earlier this month in Varga v. Gen. Elec. Co., No. 20-1144-cv, 2021 WL 391602 (2nd Cir. February 4, 2021), the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit affirmed a lower court’s dismissal of an ERISA lawsuit for breach of fiduciary duty.

In Varga, the plaintiff was a GE employee who participated in the GE 401(k) plan that offered a GE Stock Fund as one of the plan’s investment options.  The plaintiff sued GE and its CEO alleging that the defendants breached their ERISA fiduciary duty of prudence by continuing to offer the GE Stock Fund when GE improperly inflated the value of the stock for years by failing to publicly disclose a significant mistake.  And, once GE released this news to the public, the GE stock price dropped which adversely impacted plan participants.

The Varga court rejected the claim reasoning that the plaintiff failed to satisfy the tough pleading standards for a breach of ERISA’s duty of prudence claim set forth by the U.S. Supreme Court in Dudenhoeffer v. Fifth Third Bankcorp, 573 U.S. 409 (2014): “whether a plaintiff has plausibly alleged an alternative action that the defendant could have taken that would have been consistent with the securities laws and that a prudent fiduciary in the same circumstances would not have viewed as more likely to harm the fund that to help it.”   The Varga court concluded that “Varga failed to adequately plead alternative actions that the fiduciaries could have taken.”  Or, in other words, what else was GE or its CEO supposed to do?

The take-away for benefits professionals is that post-Dudenhoeffer decisions have consistently found that claims based on the nondisclosure of insider information about the employer rarely survive the pleading stage.  We will continue to monitor ERISA stock-drop cases and keep you updated with any new developments.



New MHPAEA Requirements Effective February 10, 2021

The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (“CAA”), which is the spending bill passed by Congress on December 27, 2020, imposed new requirements on group health plans to ensure compliance with the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008’s (“MHPAEA”).  Generally, the purpose of the MHPAEA is to prevent group health plans and health insurance issuers that provide mental health or substance use disorder (“MH/SUD”) benefits from applying financial requirements or treatment limitations to MH/SUD benefits that are more restrictive than those that apply to medical/surgical benefits.

The new requirements added by the CAA focuses on nonquantitative treatment limitations (“NQTL”). NQTLs are items like prior authorization, step therapy, medical necessity reviews, or other limitations or conditions that are not tied to a number.  The current rules allow participants to request information about the processes, strategies, evidentiary standards, and other factors used to apply a NQTL to MH/SUD benefits as compared to medical/surgical benefits.  The CAA added additional requirements effective February 10, 2021, including the following:

  1. health plans and health insurance issuers that impose NQTLs on MH/SUD benefits are required to perform and document a comparative analysis demonstrating that the processes, strategies, evidentiary standards and other factors used to apply the NQTLs to MH/SUD benefits, as written and in operation, are comparable to, and applied no more stringently than, the processes, strategies, evidentiary standards, and other factors used to apply the NQTLs to medical/surgical benefits; and
  2. upon request, health plans and health insurance issuers must make this comparative analysis available to state insurance regulators and/or the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Health and Human Services and/or the Secretary of the Treasury (the “Secretaries”) along with other information described in the CAA.

The CAA also requires the Secretaries to request at least 20 such analyses per year from health plans and health insurances issuers.  If the comparative analysis is found to be non-compliant, the health plan or health insurance issuers must specify the actions it will take to come into compliance and must provide a new, compliant analysis within 45 days.  If the new analysis is still determined to be non-compliant, the health insurance plan or health insurance issuer must inform all enrolled individuals of the non-compliance.

The Secretaries have 18 months to issue joint guidance and regulations on these new MHPAEA requirements; however, health plans and health insurance issuers should be prepared at any point after February 10, 2021 to submit this information.  Accordingly, plan sponsors should work closely with their insurance carriers or third-party administrators to document compliance with MHPAEA’s NQTL requirements and ensure they are prepared to respond to a request for the NQTL comparative analyses.

Last Week’s Government Funding Bill = Significant New Benefit Plan Rules

On December 27, 2020, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (the “Act”) was signed into law.  The Act imposes significant new requirements on employee benefit plans.  Coupled with other rules and legal developments already set to go into effect, the Act will create significant compliance obligations for employers and their benefit plans.[1]

Here is a summary of some, but not all, of the new requirements.

Health & Welfare Plans

  1. 2021 – New Flexibility for FSAs. Under the Act, employers have new flexibility related to their flexible spending accounts, including the option to allow:
    • FSA Carryovers. Any unused funds for 2020 or 2021 may be carried over to the next plan year.
    • FSA Extended Grace Period. For FSAs that have a grace period, the grace period can be extended for up to 12 months (instead of 2.5 months).
    • Terminated Employees. If an employee terminates participation in the FSA in 2020 or 2021, the plan may reimburse expenses through the end of that year (plus any grace period).
    • Change in Status. For plan years ending in 2021, employees may make any prospective changes in their FSA contributions without regard to a change in status.
  2. 2021 – Group Health Plans Cannot Agree to Gag Clauses. The Act requires health plans to ensure they have access to certain cost and quality-of-care information.  Plans may not agree to restrictions in contracts (e.g., network contracts) that would prevent them from accessing cost and quality of care information and providing that information to participants.  This includes provider-specific cost and quality-of-care data.
  3. 2021 – Mental Health – Nonquantitative Treatment Limitations. Beginning next month, group health plans that provide mental health or substance use disorder benefits that impose non-quantitative treatment limitations on such benefits are required to perform and document comparative analysis of the design and application of these limitations, and make these available to the DOL, HHS, or IRS upon request.
  4. 2022 – Broker and Consultant Disclosure of Compensation. The Act imposes significant new fee disclosure requirements on health brokers and consultants.  For many years now retirement plan service providers have been required to disclose every source of direct and indirect compensation, while the health plan industry has in many ways been the wild west.  The Act imposes new disclosure requirements on health plan brokers and consultants, which should give employers better information to ensure no conflicts of interest.
  5. 2022 – Pharmacy Benefit and Drug Cost Reporting. Group health plans will be required to annually report certain information related to prescription drugs to the secretaries of HHS, DOL, and Treasury.  For example, plans will be required to report the top 50 brand prescription drugs paid for by the plan and the total number of paid claims for each such drug.  Initially, the report will be required within one year of December 27, 2020, but then it will be required each year by June 1.
  6. 2022 – Identification Card Cost-Sharing Disclosure. For plan years beginning January 1, 2022, plans must include certain information on any  identification card issued to participants and beneficiaries, including any deductible or out-of-pocket maximum.
  7. 2022 – “No Surprises Act” = New Surprise Billing Rules. For plan years beginning January 1, 2022, the Act imposes significant new surprise-billing requirements that apply to group health plans, including self-funded plans.  Surprise billing often occurs when the patient (a) receives care from an out-of-network provider at an in-network facility; or (b) receives care at an out-of-network facility, such as in an emergency.
    • Emergency Services. In emergency situations, the Act is generally intended to ensure that patients (i) have the same cost-sharing responsibility for services, regardless of whether the provider is in-network; and (ii) receive credit towards any applicable in-network deductible or out-of-pocket maximums for these payments.  Under the Act, if a group health plan covers any benefits with respect to services in an emergency department of a hospital or emergency services in an independent freestanding emergency department, the plan must cover the emergency services:
      1. without the need for prior authorization;
      2. regardless of whether the provider is a participating provider or a participating emergency facility; and
      3. if the services are provided by an out-of-network provider or facility, (a) the services will be provided without any extra prior-authorization requirements, (b) the cost-sharing requirement cannot be greater than the requirement that would apply if the services were provided by a participating provider or facility, (c) the cost-sharing requirement is calculated as if the total amount had been charged by a participating provider or facility, (d) initial payment must be made within 30 days after receiving the bill, and then total payment must be made within certain timing rules, (e) any cost-sharing payments made by the participant must be counted toward any in-network deductible or out-of-pocket maximums, in the same manner as if they were made for services furnished by an in-network provider.
    • Non-Emergency Situations. In non-emergency situations, the facility or provider will have to (i) give the patient a detailed notice and an estimate of charges, generally 72 hours prior to the patient receiving out-of-network services; and (ii) obtain the patient’s consent to receive out-of-network care.  Without this notice and consent, the patient can only be held liable for their in-network cost-sharing amount.
      • Health Plan Disclosure. It appears that plans that receive the provider’s estimate will then have to quickly give the participant a notice with certain information including a good-faith estimate of how much the plan will pay.
    • Air Ambulance Surprise Billing. Surprise billing requirements that are similar to those described above will apply to air ambulance providers.

Retirement Plans

  • Partial Plan Termination Relief. Generally, if the sponsor of a retirement plan terminates 20% of plan participants during a plan year, the plan must 100% vest all affected participants.  The Act provides that a plan will not be treated as having a partial plan termination during any plan year that includes the period beginning March 13, 2020 and ending March 31, 2021, if the number of active participants in the plan covered on March 31, 2021 is at least 80% of the number on March 13, 2020.  Thus, if an employer terminated part of its workforce in 2020 but its business rebounded and the employer rehired participants, such employer’s plan will not have had a partial plan termination.

[1]             The Act is 5,593 pdf pages of new rules, most of which were signed into law on December 27, 2020 (approximately one week ago).  This summary was put together quickly to give us a roadmap of the new requirements and may need to be later corrected or adjusted.


On December 9, 2020, the IRS issued Notice 2020-86 addressing certain provisions of the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement Act of 2019 (SECURE Act) affecting certain safe harbor plans. This notice provides guidance in the form of questions and answers with respect to Sections 102 and 103 of the SECURE Act, and it is intended to assist employers while the Treasury Department and IRS develop regulations to fully implement these provisions. Below is a high-level overview of Sections 102 and 103 of the SECURE Act and some of highlights of the guidance included in Notice 2020-86.

Section 102 of the SECURE Act generally increases the maximum automatic elective deferral percentage under an automatic enrollment safe harbor plan from 10% to 15%. With respect to Section 102, this Notice includes the following guidance:

  • A qualified automatic contribution arrangement (QACA) safe harbor 401(k) plan is not required to increase the maximum elective deferral percentage provided under the plan in order to maintain its qualified plan status.
  • A plan that incorporates by reference the maximum elective deferral percentage under the Internal Revenue Code may needed to be amended to provide an explicit maximum percentage, if the employer does not intend to use the new 15% maximum. The amendment deadline is generally December 31, 2022 for non-governmental plans, and December 31, 2024 for governmental or collectively bargained plans.

Section 103 of SECURE Act eliminates certain safe harbor notice requirements for plans that provide safe harbor nonelective contributions and adds new provisions for the retroactive adoption of safe harbor status for those plans. With respect to Section 103, this Notice includes the following guidance:

  • The SECURE Act did not alter the notice requirements for plans that use safe harbor matching contributions.
  • To retain the ability to reduce or suspend safe harbor nonelective contributions during the plan year, a plan must still satisfy the requirements outlined in the Treasury regulations, include providing some type of notice to employees.
  • An amendment to adopt a nonelective contribution safe harbor design can be adopted any time before the last day for distributing excess contributions for the plan year, if the nonelective contributions are at least 4% of each employee’s compensation.

The full text of IRS Notice 2020-86 is available at

RADICAL New Transparency Rules Likely Apply to Your Health Plan In One Year

“To make fully informed decisions about their health care, patients must know the price and quality of a good or service in advance.”[1]

New rules published last month likely require your employer health plan to phase-in certain disclosures over a three-year period beginning in one year:

  1. January 1, 2022 (three files must be disclosed): For plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2022, non-grandfathered group health plans will be required to make available to the public three separate machine-readable files that include detailed pricing information (standardized format and updated monthly):
    • File #1 (in-network providers): The first file must show the negotiated rates for all covered items and services between the plan and in-network providers, except prescription drugs (see File #3 below).
    • File #2 (out-of-network providers): The second file must disclose the historical payments to, and billed charges from, out-of-network providers.
    • File #3 (prescriptions): The third file must disclose the in-network negotiated rates and historical net prices for all covered prescription drugs.
  1. January 1, 2023 (online shopping tool required for 500 items): For plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2023, non-grandfathered group health plans must make available to participants, beneficiaries, and enrollees (or their authorized representative) personalized out-of-pocket cost information, and the underlying negotiated rates, for 500 identified covered health care items and services through an internet-based self-service tool, and in paper form, upon request.  (NoteThis is intended to give consumers real-time and accurate estimates of their cost-sharing liability for health care items and services from different providers in real time, allowing them to both understand how costs are determined and also to shop and compare health care costs before receiving care.)
  1. January 1, 2024 (online shopping tool for everything): For plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2024, non-grandfathered group health plans must make available to participants, beneficiaries, and enrollees (or their authorized representative) personalized out-of-pocket cost information, and the underlying negotiated rates, for all covered health care items and services, including prescription drugs, through an internet-based self-service tool, and in paper form, upon request.

These disclosures are radical.  Network providers and third-party administrators will be working hard and spending a lot of money over the next 12 months to try to comply with these new requirements.  Ultimately, employers are likely responsible for ensuring compliance so you might check with your service providers to find out their plan and make sure you have an understanding of their timeline (which is likely just starting to develop).

[1]              Executive Order on Improving Price and Quality Transparency in American Healthcare to Put Patients First (June 24, 2019).

Employer health plans must pay the cost of a COVID-19 vaccine

As many have likely heard, multiple COVID-19 vaccine candidates have rapidly reached the final stages of development and are showing extraordinary effectiveness. The vaccines are beginning to be submitted to the FDA for emergency approval before hitting the market. This means that employers need to start thinking about how this will affect their workplace benefit plans now.

As my colleague Charlie Plumb recently wrote, employers are generally permitted to implement mandatory vaccine policies that require employees to be vaccinated before returning to the workplace. Assuming no disability or religious exception applies, the next question is this: Who has to pay for it?

Surprisingly, the answer is pretty simple: Employer-sponsored group health plans (whether fully- or self-insured) will be required to pay the full cost of the vaccine for employees covered under the plan with no cost-sharing (copay, coinsurance, deductible) to the employee.


As employee benefits professionals and insiders are inevitably aware, the Affordable Care Act (the “ACA”) already requires group health plans and insurers to cover certain “preventive care” items with no cost-sharing (also called first-dollar coverage), such as the flu vaccine. These items are generally listed on the website.

The typical process for an item to be classified as a “preventive service” starts with certain governmental groups, such as the CDC or the United States Preventive Services Task Force making a “recommendation” (although it is not as much a recommendation as a requirement) that an item should be classified as a preventive service. The item must then receive first-dollar coverage under a group health plan or policy starting with the first plan year that begins one year after the date the recommendation is made. Also, first-dollar coverage is generally only required when participants receive care from an in-network provider.


Because of the ensuing pandemic, Congress found this timeline unacceptable. The CARES Act modified the preventive service rules for the COVID-19 vaccine in early March before any sign of a vaccine was in sight. The CARES Act requires group health plans to provide first-dollar coverage of COVID-19 vaccines within 15 business days after the vaccine receives an “A” or “B” rating from the United States Preventive Services Task Force or receives a recommendation from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the CDC.

Just to reemphasize, plans generally have at least a year after a new item is added to the preventive services list to provide first-dollar coverage. But now, first-dollar coverage for a COVID-19 vaccine is required within 15 business days after the applicable governmental recommendations are made. Therefore, plan sponsors need to keep an eye out for these recommendations to ensure that their health plans are being administered properly (and are properly amended to reflect this requirement).


Also distinct from the traditional ACA preventive care rules, group health plans and insurers must pay the full cost of COVID-19 vaccines regardless of whether administered in- or out-of-network. In a joint interim final rule published by the Departments of Treasury, Labor, and Health and Human Services, plans and insurers are required to pay out-of-network providers a “reasonable” reimbursement rate in order to provide a “meaningful” benefit to participants and, presumably, to entice enough providers to administer the vaccine. A reasonable rate is generally the prevailing market rate, the Departments say. The Departments deem the amount paid under Medicare to be reasonable. Finally, providers who are participating in the CDC COVID-19 Vaccination Program are prohibited from balance billing (also known as surprise billing) vaccine recipients.


The big implication of these rules is that employers will have to bear the full cost of the vaccine for each employee covered under its health plan. To the extent an employer is going to mandate employees to become vaccinated before returning to the workplace, employers will have to weigh the cost of requiring employees to become vaccinated (when some employees might not have gotten the vaccine otherwise) against the costs of possible continued loss in productivity due to an ill workforce or employees working from home.

New legislation focusing on retirement savings attempts to build on SECURE Act


As you probably remember, last year President Trump signed into law the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act of 2019.  The SECURE Act was a far-reaching and bi-partisan effort aimed at increasing access to tax-advantaged accounts and preventing older Americans from outliving their savings.  A few of the major components of the SECURE Act included:

  • Pushing back the age at which retirement plan participants need to take required minimum distributions from 70 ½ to 72.
  • Repealing the maximum age for traditional IRA contributions.
  • Allowing individuals to use 529 plan money to repay student loans.
  • Allowing penalty-free withdrawals from retirement plans for birth or adoption expenses.

Securing a Strong Retirement Act of 2020

Just last month, Congressmen Richard Neal (D-Mass) and Kevin Brady (R-Texas) introduced the Securing a Strong Retirement Act of 2020.  This new legislation attempts to build on the momentum from last year’s SECURE Act to encourage retirement savings. A few highlights of this new bill include:

  • Promoting saving earlier for retirement by expanding automatic enrollment in retirement plans.
  • Pushing back further the age at which retirement plan participants need to take required minimum distributions from 72 to 77.
  • Increasing catch-up contributions for those age 60.
  • Treating student loan payments as elective deferrals for purposes of matching contributions.

A copy of the Securing a Strong Retirement Act of 2020 and section-by-section summary of the bill can be found in the attached press release by the Ways & Means Committee:

Moving forward

It is unclear if this legislation will pass next year in a possibly deeply-divided Congress.  But it appears there is consensus among both parties to help Americans save for retirement.   We will continue to monitor Congress’s progress with this new important piece of legislation.

Defined Contribution Plan Restatement Period Begins

The IRS has recently issued to document vendors opinion letter approvals for updated pre-approved defined contribution plan documents.  This starts the next cycle of required defined contribution plan document restatements.   If you are an employer that currently sponsors a 401(k) plan, profit sharing plan, money purchase plan or ESOP, and the plan document is currently on an IRS pre-approved document, you will need to restate your plan document on a newly approved document on or before July 31, 2022.

Rolling these new documents out to plan sponsors is of course a big undertaking for retirement plan document vendors, and they will be attacking this task in a very systematic way in the coming months so that their adopting employers can meet the deadline. The document vendors play the primary role in the plan restatement process. They will notify plan sponsors when their plan restatement process is scheduled and give plan sponsors a time period to review draft documents with legal counsel, obtain board of director approval, and execute and return the documents.  The documents will include the restated plan and usually an updated service agreement.

It is important to keep in mind that the plan sponsor/employer needs to be on top of the process.   The plan sponsor is responsible for reviewing, approving and adopting the restatement.  The document vendor will usually not accept responsibility for the timely completion of this process or the accuracy and correctness of the documents. Drafting mistakes are not uncommon, so it is critical for employer to not treat the restatement draft as a perfunctory “sign and return” task.   The plan sponsor should carefully review the draft to make sure that it is accurate. This process is also an opportunity to compare the plan provisions with the actual administration of the plan and to consider plan design changes.  When you receive the draft documents from your document vendor, we strongly urge you to devote adequate time and attention to getting this important task completed.

Oklahoma Employers Healthcare Alliance

Attorney Q&A with Brandon Long

What began as a roundtable discussion to share ideas and best practices has now become a movement. Earlier this year, McAfee & Taft played a key role in establishing a first-of-its-kind coalition of Oklahoma employers. The mission: To act in the collective best interests of employers to promote healthcare quality, cost-effectiveness, transparency and accountability.

In this LINC Q&A video, McAfee & Taft employee benefits lawyer Brandon Long discusses the catalyst of this emerging movement, its purpose and vision, who comprises the coalition, what has already been accomplished, and next steps for those interested in being a part of the alliance.

Under Final Rule, 401(k) Fiduciaries Be Careful About Green Investing

Earlier this year, the United States Department of Labor issued a proposed rule on environmental, social, corporate governance, or other similarly-oriented considerations (collectively, “ESG”) related to the investments in ERISA plans.  The Department appears to have issued the proposed rule out of a concern about the growing emphasis on ESG investing and the potential for some investment products to be marketed to ERISA fiduciaries on the basis of purported benefits and goals unrelated to financial performance.

After receiving a number of comments on the proposed rule, the DOL issued its final rule this past Friday.  The final rule provides that ERISA plan fiduciaries must select investments and investment courses of action based solely on financial considerations relevant to the risk-adjusted economic value of a particular investment or investment course of action.  ERISA fiduciaries can never sacrifice investment returns, take on additional investment risk, or pay higher fees to promote non-pecuniary benefits or goals (including ESG goals).

The final rule states that it makes five changes to the applicable regulation under ERISA:

  1. Evaluate Investments Based Solely on Pecuniary Factors.  The rule adds provisions to confirm that ERISA fiduciaries must evaluate investments and investment courses of action based solely on pecuniary factors – that is, financial considerations that have a material effect on the risk and/or return of an investment based on appropriate investment horizons consistent with the plan’s investment objectives and funding policy.
  2. Can’t Sacrifice Returns to Promote Non-Pecuniary Goals.  The rule includes an express regulatory provision stating that compliance with the exclusive purpose (loyalty) duty in ERISA prohibits fiduciaries from subordinating the interests of participants to unrelated objectives, and bars them from sacrificing investment return or taking on additional investment risk to promote non-pecuniary goals.
  3. Consider Reasonably Available Alternatives.  The rule includes a provision that requires fiduciaries to consider reasonably available alternatives to meet their prudence and loyalty duties under ERISA.
  4. All Things Being Equal.  The rule sets forth required investment analysis and documentation requirements for those circumstances in which plan fiduciaries use non-pecuniary factors when choosing between or among investments that the fiduciary is unable to distinguish on the basis of pecuniary factors alone.
  5. Might Be Okay to Include Fund With Non-Pecuniary Goals, IF. . . .  The final rule expressly provides that, in the case of selecting investment alternatives for an individual account plan that allows plan participants and beneficiaries to choose from a broad range of investment alternatives, a fiduciary is not prohibited from considering or including an investment fund, product, or model portfolio merely because the fund, product, or model portfolio promotes, seeks, or supports one or more non-pecuniary goals, provided that the fiduciary satisfies the prudence and loyalty provisions in ERISA and the final rule, including the requirement to evaluate solely on pecuniary factors, in selecting any such investment fund, product, or model portfolio. However, the provision prohibits plans from adding any investment fund, product, or model portfolio as a qualified default investment alternative, or as a component of such an investment alternative, if the fund, product, or model portfolio’s investment objectives or goals or its principal investment strategies include, consider, or indicate the use of one or more non-pecuniary factors.